. 2022 Jan 14;101(2):e28479.

doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000028479.


Item in Clipboard

Soha H Shosha et al.

Medicine (Baltimore).



To facilitate the understanding of the interaction between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causing the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other pathogens causing respiratory system affection we investigated the effect of influenza vaccination on the incidence and severity of COVID-19 among members of staff working in the Bahrain Defense Force Hospital.All staff members working in the hospital between February 2020 and March 2021 were divided into 2 main groups based on whether or not they received influenza vaccination. None of the participants had received any of the COVID-19 vaccines throughout this time period. The records of each were scrutinized to see the effect of influenza vaccination on incidence and severity of COVID-19. Severity measures were: need for hospital and intensive care unit admission and total length of hospital stay.Incidence of affection with COVID-19 was much lower in the vaccinated group (3.7% vs 8.1%, P < .001). Influenza vaccination also reduced total length of hospital stay (6.2 days vs 12.7 days, P < .05) and need for intensive care unit admission among the patients.Influenza vaccine reduces both the incidence of affection as well as the overall burden of COVID-19. This is of particular importance for people working in the healthcare field during the serious COVID-19 pandemic.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.


    1. World Health Organization. WHO director-general’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 2020. Available at: https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-re…. Accessed April, 2021.

    1. Guan W-j, Ni Z-y, Hu Y, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. New Engl J Med 2020;382:1708–20.

    1. Verity R, Okell LC, Dorigatti I, et al. Estimates of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019: a model-based analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2020;20:669–77.

    1. Madhi SA, Klugman KP. Vaccine Trialist Group. A role for Streptococcus pneumoniae in virus-associated pneumonia. Nat Med 2004;10:811–3.

    1. Hers JF, Masurel N, Mulder J. Bacteriology and histopathology of the respiratory tract and lungs in fatal Asian influenza. Lancet 1958;2:1141–3.